15 best architectural styles (2023)

The built environment is a rich and varied architectural tapestry with overlapping styles and movements that have often traveled the world, adapting to different climates, landscapes and cultural needs. Here's a rundown of 15 architectural styles popular throughout history.

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    classical architecture

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    An umbrella term referring to building styles originating in ancient Greece and Rome, classical architecture has influenced centuries of subsequent design movements around the world, including neoclassical andgreek renaissance architecture. Some of the most famous buildings in the modern world are based on ancient Greek and Roman designs. Classical architecture focuses on symmetry and proportions; columns with Doric, Ionic or Corinthian details; the use of materials such as marble, brick and concrete; and classic design motifs such as interior trim, gabled roofs, box eaves, decorative door frames, and broken gables above the front door.

    Although classical architecture has largely been replaced by modernism and contemporary architecture in the 20th century, classical architecture continues to be built in what has been renamed the "new classical" style.

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    neoclassical architecture

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    Neoclassical architecture refers to a style of buildings constructed during the Renaissanceclassical Greek and Roman architecturewhich began around 1750 and flourished in the 18th and 19th centuries. While Greek Revival architecture uses classical elements such as columns withDoric, Ionic or CorinthianIn detail, Neoclassicism is characterized by a revival on a larger scale of complete and often large-scale classical volumes.

    Some of the most famous and easily recognizable institutional and government buildings in Europe and the United States are in the neoclassical style, such as the White House and the United States Capitol building.

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    greek renaissance architecture

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    Greek Renaissance architecture is inspired by the symmetry, proportion, simplicity and elegance of ancient Greek temples from the 5th century BC. In the United States, Greek Revival peaked in popularity between 1825 and 1860, becoming the first dominant national architectural style in the United States, as it spread from the East Coast across the country to the West Coast, leaving state capitol buildings , banks, New England churches, urban row houses, loggia cottages and Southern plantation homes in its wake.

    Drawing inspiration from the birthplace of democracy, Americans borrowed classic elements to design buildings for what was still a new democracy, such as columns withDoric, Ionic or Corinthiandetails, painted white to imitate the marble used in ancient Greece; slightly sloping roofs with gabled fronts; and elaborate door frames.interiors it presented simple and quite open designs; graceful proportions; high windows and doors on the living room floor; ornate plaster ceilings; smooth plaster walls; wide plank flooring; and ornate ceiling borders.

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    industrial architecture

    15 best architectural styles (4)

    General term used to describe buildings constructed to meet the needs of industry,industrial architectureIt covers a variety of building types and styles that combine functionality and design and can be found throughout the industrialized world, such as factories, warehouses, foundries, steel plants, water tanks, grain silos, distilleries, breweries, refineries, energy and other utility structures. The first industrial buildings were built in the 1700s during the first Industrial Revolution which took place mainly in Great Britain between 1760 and 1840.

    But today, when we refer to industrial architecture, we are primarily referring to buildings that came into being in response to the widespread use of new materials like metal and concrete, as well as mass production methods brought about by the Second Industrial Revolution of the late 19th century. and beginning of the 19th century. beginning of the 20th century, and which formed the basic components forModern architecture. Characteristics of industrial architecture can include large open floor plans; high ceilings; raw materials such as concrete, brick and metal; lack of ornamentation on the building's facade; exposed brick, ducts and pipes; and large wire mesh windows.

    What is industrial architecture?

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    bauhaus architecture

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    Bauhaus architecture emerged from the influential German school founded byWalter Gropius(1883-1969) at the turn of the 20th century, which had the utopian aim of creating a radically new form of architecture and design to help rebuild society after the First World War. Synthesizing fine arts, crafts, design, architecture and technology, the Bauhaus promoted a rational and functional design that embraced a form that follows function, less is more ethos.

    Not all Bauhaus buildings are the same,but in general they avoid ornamentation in favor of a simple, rational and functional design; Use simple geometric shapes like thetriangle, square and circle;asymmetry; use of modern materials such as steel, glass, concrete; flat roofs; glass curtain walls; smooth facades. Bauhaus became the international style when Gropius and other leading Bauhaus members immigrated to the United States in the 1930s and later influenced the development of modernism in the 1950s and 1960s. influence the shape and appearance of everyday objects. .

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    victorian architecture

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    The term Victorian architecture does not refer to a particular style, but to an era: Queen Victoria's reign from 1837 to 1901. The style originated in England and still largely defines the architecture of its cities and towns, but it is they. spread different styles of Victorian-era architecture. to places like North America, Australia and New Zealand. Victorian-era architecture is marked by its uncompromising devotion to ornament and its ornate interior design. Some functions that will help youfind a victorianoutside include: sloping ceilings; plain or colored brick; ornate gables; roof finishes; sliding sash and windows; octagonal or round towers; and generous wraparound balconies. Interiors often include grand staircases; complicated designs; high ceilings; intricately carved wood panels; and decorative fireplaces.

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    architecture arts and crafts

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    The Arts and Crafts movement was a reaction to the ornate, mass-produced styles of Victorian architecture that embraced handcrafted design and the use of natural materials such as stone, brick, wood, and hammered metal and bronze accents. Originating in Britain in the mid-19th century, the Arts and Crafts movement migrated to the US in the early 20th century and encompassed architecture, interior design, textiles, fine art and more. Many architectural styles emerged from the Arts and Crafts movement, including the popular Craftsman and Bungalow style homes, simple, carefully designed structures originally for working-class families.

    Arts and Crafts style homes are symmetrical; close to the ground; designed for efficiency and minimal maintenance; they usually feature large fireplaces; low ceilings with wide overhangs; visible interior beams; built-in shelving, window seats, and cabinets; and several windows with small crystals; prominent balconies; and open plants.

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    Cape Cod Architecture

    15 best architectural styles (8)

    Cape Cod's architecture is named after the coastal region of Massachusetts where it is the signature style. Easily warm and inviting, Cape Cod homes have simple, timeless silhouettes and clean lines, with elements such as oak and pine wood moldings and hardwood floors; brick fireplaces; and cedar slats or cedar slats for roofing and side shingles.

    English settlers in the 17th century first adapted English half-timbered parlors and halls to suit the bitter New England climate, creating a squarer, lower silhouette to withstand the elements. A second wave known as the Cape Cod Revival in the 1920s to 1950s helped to popularize the style, which spread across the United States and became an inexpensive fix during the Depression and after the war.real estate boom of the 1940sand 1950s. Even in 21st century America of oversized Cape Cod style homes retain a nostalgic folk appeal with new constructions of all sizes today, from sprawling homes to tiny homes.

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    Tudor architecture

    15 best architectural styles (9)

    Originating in England during the Tudor period, beginning in 1485, Tudor architecture evokes fairytale cottages and old-world charm.Tudor Housesthey were built by craftsmen who combined Renaissance and Gothic design elements to create a transitional style that spread throughout England until it was supplanted by Elizabethan architecture in the 1560s. The Tudor style was reborn in the United States in the 1890s and remains popular today during the 1940s Tudor homes feature unique half-timbered details, long decorative wooden beams placed vertically creating a two-tone exterior. However, Tudor Revival homes often eschewed this original Tudor look, opting instead for red-toned brick with ornate accents around windows, fireplaces and doors.

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    Art Deco architecture

    15 best architectural styles (10)

    Art Deco architecture is part of the Art Deco movement, a period of inventive design in the United States and Europe in the 1920s and 1930s that spanned the domains of fashion, art, housewares, and building styles during the 1920s and the Great Depression. The earliest examples of Art Deco architecture can be found in Paris, France, before the style spread to the United States in the 1930s, forever influencing the Manhattan skyline with now iconic skyscrapers like the Empire State Building, Rockefeller Center and Chrysler. building.

    Art Deco buildings use materials such as stucco, terracotta, decorative glass, chrome, steel and aluminum. They feature ornate geometric details such as chevrons, pyramids, stylized or floral sunbursts, zig-zags and other geometric shapes. Many Art Deco buildings feature bright, opulent colors accented with black, white, gold, or silver contrasts. And they often have fragmented triangular shapes; decorative and geometric windows; parapets and towers.

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    Modern architecture

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    Modern architecturerefers to the style of architecture that flourished in the early to mid-20th century. Rejecting the ornamental styles of the recent past, modern architecture favors clean lines; functional design; open floor plans; built-in storage; focus on materials such as steel, concrete, iron, glass, wood, brick and stone; and a focus on integrating the architecture into the natural landscape, bringing the outdoors indoors through the use of large windows to let in natural light and air.

    Modern architects such as Frank Lloyd Wright redefined a new world of architecture with form follows functional design, and a host of mid-century designers transformed the built landscape and interior design world with mid-century modern furniture that still are very popular today. .

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    brutalist architecture

    15 best architectural styles (12)

    Brutalist architecture (1950s to 1970s) is characterized by simple, blocky, massive concrete structures (the term is a play on the French phrase for raw concrete,raw cement). With its simple graphic lines, heavy visuals, monochrome palette and absence of ornamentation, Brutalism is a style that is bold, direct and eternally polarizing. An offshoot of modernism, brutalist architecture became a popular, if perennially controversial, choice for institutional buildings around the world before fading away in the 1980s, giving way to postmodernism and today's contemporary styles. But the style's influence can be seen in contemporary product and interior design, furniture, objects and web design.

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    Contemporary architecture

    15 best architectural styles (13)

    Contemporary architectureis an all-encompassing phrase that encompasses a variety of current building styles that often look radically different from each other, and sometimes from anything that came before. Contemporary architecture followed the modern period of the first half of the 20th century and the postmodern period until the 1990s. Using innovative building materials and methods such as computer-generated curves, laser cutting technology and 3D printing, architects contemporaries often adopt rounded shapes, curved lines, unconventional volumes, asymmetry and open floor plans. Sustainability is an important feature of contemporary architecture.

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    fine art architecture

    15 best architectural styles (14)

    Beaux-Arts architecture is a building style that emerged from the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris in the late 19th century and spread to the US.it was golden. Beaux-Arts buildings are grandiose, theatrical and highly ornate buildings inspired by Roman and Greek classicism and inspired by the French and Italian Renaissance andBaroquebuilding styles such as the Musée D'Orsay.

    Notable American architects such as Richard Morris, HH Richardson and Charles McKim trained at the Beaux-Arts school in Paris, and the Beaux-Arts style was adopted for the main construction projects in the USA. UU., such as the Biblioteca del Congreso en Washington D.C. and prominent buildings. as Grand Central Terminal and the main branch of the New York Public Library in New York. Beaux-Arts architecture died out around 1930 with the onset of the Depression, making such exaggerated displays of opulence unfashionable and out of date.

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    italian architecture

    15 best architectural styles (15)

    italian style architecturerefers to a particular 19th-century style of building that was inspired by 16th-century Italian Renaissance architecture combined withpicturesqueinfluences that featured architectural elements from a romantic past that broke some of the strict rules about formalclassical architecture.

    The Italianate style was born in 1802 when architect John Nash built the first Italianate villa in England, Cronkhill in Shropshire, and was furthered by the work of Sir Charles Barry in the 1830s. The style spread across northern Europe. , the British Empire, and the United States from the late 1840s through the 1890s. It was a very popular building choice used in both rural and urban settings in the United States in the 1860s after the Civil War.

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